Peer Tutoring

Useful Links

PeerCentered is a space for peer writing tutors/consultants or anyone interested in writing centers to blog with their colleagues from around the world. Bloggers here will share their ideas, experiences, or insight. PeerCentered also features a podcast.

The Dangling modifier is an “international newsletter for peer tutors in writing.” The site features avariety of articles about peer tutoring, a “tutor guru,” and an archive of past issues.

NCPTW strives to foster collaborative learning through peer tutoring. The site provides information about conference and a spot to share touring strategies.

This comprehensive resouce from the University of Richmond contains video training clips meant to demonstrate various tutoring techniques. The site also includes questions to consider while watching the videos.

An online journal based at the University of Texas at Austin\’s Undergraduate Writing Center, Praxis is edited by writing consultants and aimed at an audience of consultants/peer tutors and writing center directors. We feature articles written by tutors and directors concerning issues such as training, consulting strategies, and professional development.

The Peer Tutoring Resource Center is a project of the RAD Schwartz Foundation, which has supported peer tutoring in Oakland for more than 30 years. Mission: We aim to support the development of caring and collaborative citizens by enhancing the use, expansion and sustainability of peer tutoring – a model engaging students as instructors and leaders in classrooms and across schools.

Peer tutoring

Education Manuals

Tell us where to find your training manual. The Web Editor is looking for submissions for this section of the Website. If you would like to submit pages/articles to these pages email the IWCA Web Editor.

Annotated Bibliography of Peer Tutoring Resources

Prepared April 24, 2005 by Catherine DeLazzero

Bishop, Wendy, ed. (2000). The Subject is Reading: Essays by Teachers and Students . Portsmouth , NH . Boynton/Cook Publishers.

This text is used in tutor training courses on reading and writing. The editor juxtaposes essays written by students and teachers to provide alternate perspectives on the processes of reading and teaching reading. The editor intends to broaden students’ approaches to reading through the use of interactive strategies and the development of theoretical approaches. Sixteen interactive classroom activities are included in the text.

Capossela, Toni-Lee (1998). The Harcourt Brace Guide to Peer Tutoring . Orlando , FL : Harcourt Brace College Publishers.

This text is divided into two sections. The first addresses pedagogical issues the tutor will encounter during sessions. The first chapter in this section defines the role of the “peer consultant” and the following chapters discuss elements of the editing process (i.e., working with teachers’ comments, organization, and surface errors). The second section presents research on theories of writing center pedagogy: the co-learner model of tutor training, peer tutoring as discursive interaction, tutoring as meta-analysis of rhetorical problems, expectation and negotiation in tutoring, student rights to their own texts, arguments for the thesis statement, conferencing strategies for the ESL writer, and possibilities for online tutoring.

Gartner, Audrey and Frank Riessman (1993). Peer-Tutoring: Toward a New Model [Electronic version]. ERIC Digest . Retrieved on April 24 th , 2005 , from http:/

The article’s discussion follows evidence that peer tutoring is effective for tutors’ as well as tutees’ academic and social development. The first section of the article discusses a peer tutoring model developed by the Peer Research Laboratory at the City University of New York. The model makes the tutoring process a central instructional strategy and participants have the experience of playing dual roles of tutor and tutee. Participants become cognizant of their learning processes as a result of participating in programs designed according the Laboratory’s model. The second half of the article discusses specific programs developed by the Peer Research Laboratory. The first program involved cross-age peer tutoring at an elementary school. In the second, high school tutees participated in the planning and assessment of the program. The third program was integrated into a high school World Citizen curriculum, where students received credit for coursework as well as for peer mentoring international students. The final program gave high school students community service credit for tutoring elementary and middle school students; regardless of the achievement levels of the tutors, their effectiveness was consistent across the program. The Laboratory has found that youth-helping-youth programs increase students’ self-esteem, reduce stigma associated with receiving help-since all students participate as tutors and tutees-and contribute to the development of student-centered schools.

Gillespie, Paula and Neal Lerner (2000). The Allyn and Bacon Guide to Peer Tutoring. Boston : Pearson Education Company.

The authors of this text have experience working in writing centers. The structure of the text mirrors the structure of the tutor training process. The authors begin with overviews of the writing and tutoring process. Next, they examine tutor expectations, the roles of tutor and writer, and first tutoring experiences. The authors then move on to more specialized topics: reading in the writing center, working with speakers of other languages, conducting writing center research through discourse analysis, online tutoring, and writing center ethics. In the final chapter they anticipate challenges in common scenarios and offer general advice.

Murphy, Christina and Steve Sherwood, eds. (2003). The St. Martin ‘s Sourcebook for Writing Tutors, 2 nd Edition . Boston : Bedford ‘s/ St. Martin ‘s.

The editors of this text present current theories of writing pedagogy with the purpose of providing a theoretical framework with which to inform peer tutor practices. The text investigates traditional rhetoric, expressivism, cultural studies pedagogies, and post-modern and post-colonial theories of composition. The following principal ideas guide the texts’ discussion on the tutoring process: a) tutoring is contextual, b) tutoring is collaborative, c) tutoring is interpersonal, and d) tutoring is individualized (1). The editors attempt to present multiple views of the tutoring process and the learning experience these processes embody (2). Effective practices vary according to approach; the text offers the student-centered approach, the minimalist approach, the directive approach, the collaborative approach, and the medical ethics approach. Tutors are defined as organic intellectuals, reflective practitioners, and change agents in the identification and negotiation of various subject positions and multiple voices in writing. The text also addresses issues of aggression, censorship, and cultural conflict in the tutor/tutee relationship. The text offers practical strategies for ESL tutorials, techniques for the learning disabled tutee, understanding conversations with deaf students, and protocols and processes in online tutoring and MUD (multi user dimension) network technologies.

Myer, Emily and Louise Z. Smith (1987). The Practical Tutor . New York : Oxford University Press.

Many university writing centers use this text in formal tutor training programs. The text addresses issues that frequently arise in writing tutorials. It begins with sections on the tutorial relationship and tutorial dialogue. Next, the text addresses composition issues such as fluency, structure, and surface errors. The authors have included writing assignments, classroom activities, and bibliographies at the end of each chapter.

Rafoth, Ben (2000). A Tutor’s Guide: Helping Writers One on One . Portsmouth , NH : Boynton/ Cook Publishers, Inc.

The authors contributing to this text have experience working in writing centers. Essays focus on effective tutoring strategies and perspectives on the tutor/tutee relationship. Authors discuss emotional boundaries between the tutor and tutee, modeling and facilitating, reluctant writers, online tutoring, ESL writing, source documentation and resources for tutors.

Ryan, Leigh (2002). The Bedford Guide for Writing Tutors, 3 rd Edition . Boston : Bedford /St. Martin ‘s.

A short guide for writing center tutors which includes chapters on professionalism, stages of the writing process, internet resources and online tutoring, and challenges in tutoring sessions. The author includes practical exercises and a thorough annotated bibliography.

Writing Center Services and Scholarship

Farrell, Pamela, ed. (1989). The High School Writing Center : Establishing andMaintaining One . Urbana , IL : National Council of Teachers of English.

This text offers practical information on establishing and maintaining a high school writing center. Twenty-two articles address topics such as training adult and student staff, pedagogical approaches to working with student clients, and incorporation of electronic writing tools.

Models, Methods, and Movements: The Multi-Faceted Writing Center : Selected Proceedings of the 31 st Annual Conference of the Midwest Writing Centers Association (1989). Abstract retrieved April 20 th , 2005 from The ERIC Database.

This selected collection includes the following papers: Carmen Charleston’s “Inner-City Writing Centers in St. Louis Public Schools,” Marilyn Cozad’s “Non-Traditional Students in the Writing Lab,” Geoff Gajewski’s “The Tutor/Faculty Partnership: It’s Required,” and James Upton and S. Kay Gerlmann’s “Beyond Tutoring: Expanding the Definition and Services of a High School Writing Center.”

Murphy, Christina, Joe Law and Steve Sherwood (1996). Writing Centers: An Annotated Bibliography . Westport , Connecticut : Greenwood Press.

Part of a series of bibliographies and indexes specializing in education. This volume includes fourteen hundred annotated entries on the history of writing centers, program descriptions of writing centers, professional concerns, writing center theory, writing across the curriculum, and peer tutoring.

Nelson, Jane and Kathy Evertz, eds. The Politics of Writing Centers (2001). Portmouth , N.H. : Heinemann/Boynton-Cook.

The editors divide this text into two sections, “The Politics of Conversation” and “The Politics of Location.” The collection features an essay by Pamela B. Childers and James K. Upton entitled, “Political Issues in Secondary School Writing Centers.”

Pemberton, Michael A. and Joyce Kinkead, eds. (2003). The Center Will Hold: Critical Perspectives on Writing Center Scholarship . Logan , Utah : Utah State University Press.

Winner of the 2004 Writing Program Administration Best Book Award and the 2004 International Writing Centers Association Outstanding Book on Writing Center Research. This text evaluates the potential of writing centers within the historical context of a scholarly community. Contributors discuss writing center research, writing center assessment and effectiveness, tutor training manuals as writing center lore, peer tutoring across the curriculum, architectural space and design in writing centers, mentoring with electronic sources.

Speck, Bruce W., Dean A. Hinnen, and Kathleen Hinnen (2003). Teaching Revising and Editing: an Annotated Bibliography. Westport , Connecticut : Praeger Publishers.

This annotated bibliography is the final volume in a series devoted to aspects of the writing process and text production. The author divides the text into sections on teaching revision and editing in academic and nonacademic settings, as well as a section on editing and revising in the writing process. There is a small section devoted to peer editing which includes eighteen entries.

Professional Organizations Related to Peer Tutoring Services and Scholarship

The Cambridge Stratford Study Skills Institute: A Division of Cambridge Stratford, Ltd.

The CSSS Institute provides tutor training services and publishes The Master Tutor Guidebook and the Tutor Training Manual , which can be ordered directly from its website.

The Collaborative Academic Preparation Initiative.

The CAPI program at California State University at San Marcos provides writing consulting services to local high schools. University students cooperate with high school faculty to implement after-school writing centers, high school journalism internships, and access to online consulting services through CAPI’s Online Writing Lab.

The College Reading and Learning Association.

The College Reading and Learning Association provides information on conferences, publications, and organizations related to reading tutorial scholarship. CRLA also publishes a Tutor Training Handbook (2003).
URL: .

The International Writing Centers Association.

The International Writing Centers Association provides educational materials and support services to promote writing center development. The IWCA lends support to regional organizations and conferences, gives awards for outstanding scholarship on writing centers, offers assistance through subcommittees on a range of writing center issues, and provides a free “starter kit” for setting up a writing center. Information on IWCA and its regional affiliates can be found on the IWCA homepage, which also provides an online directory of university and high school writing centers, selected writing center bibliography, and access to the WCenter archives. IWCA Press publishes texts on writing center theory and practice, including the International Writing Centers Association Handbook .

The National Council of the Teachers of English. (n.d.). Writing Centers . Retrieved April 24 th , 2005 , from

NCTE’s website offers resources on establishing and maintaining a high school or university writing center. The first section lists titles of NCTE’s position statements on writing centers and electronic services. The next section offers links to organizations affiliated with NCTE, such as the International Writing Centers Association. The third section offers an annotated bibliography of book and journal article titles; this section also lists conference papers related to secondary school writing centers. The final section lists OWLs (Online Writing Labs) and other web resources.

North Carolina State University Undergraduate Tutorial Center (n.d.). A Look at Productive Tutoring Techniques . Retrieved on April 24 th , 2005 , from

The Undergraduate Tutorial Center offers tutor training materials, including a video outlining eight effective tutoring techniques. The above mentioned web page lists the effective techniques outlined in the video. The techniques include positive reinforcement, active listening, tutee validation, dialogue, effective questioning, independent learning skill development, and direct instruction.

The Writing Center at Michigan State University .

The Writing Center aims to improve development of the teaching and uses of literacy at MSU as well as in the surrounding schools and workplaces. The Center recognizes students as knowledgeable individuals responsible for sharing their developing understandings and talents with one another and the broader community. The Center’s website provides information on university and community peer consultancies established in Michigan .
URL: www.writing.msu.

The Writing Center Research Project.

The Writing Centers Research Project at the University of Louisville conducts and supports research on writing center theory and practice and maintains a research repository of historical, empirical, and scholarly materials related to Writing Center Studies. Their website provides materials, oral history, and journal archives, as well as links to newsletters, writing center listservs, and bibliographies.
URL: .

Online Publications and Services

Bedford/St. Martin’s. The Bedford Bibliography for Teachers of Writing . Retrieved on April 24, 2005 from .

Bedford/St. Martin’s is a college publisher specializing in the Humanities. The Bedford Bibliography for the Teachers of Writing provides web links to bibliographies on rhetoric and composition, curriculum development, and writing programs. The Writing Programs bibliography provides resources on administration, peer tutor training, and electronic writing technologies.

The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University (n.d.). Retrieved April, 2005 from

The Online Writing Lab at Temple University Writing Center (n.d.). Retrieved April, 2005 from

WCenter Electronic Network. WCenter List . Retrieved on April 24, 2005 , from

WCenter is the leading electronic network for online discussions of peer tutoring and writing center programs. Excellent resource for educators.

Writing Lab Newsletter (n.d.). Retrieved April 24th, 2005 , from .

An online forum for exchanging ideas about high school and university peer tutoring programs. The site provides information on conferences, professional news, articles, book reviews, and a column written for and by tutors.

The Writing Center Journal (1980.) The Writing Center Journal Online/WCJ/ . Retrieved April, 2005, from .

The official publication for the International Writing Centers Association, an affiliate of the National Council of Teachers of English. The Writing Center Journal publishes articles, reviews and announcements related to university and high school writing center practice and administration. WCJ is published twice a year, and the website provides access to WCJ archives.

(c) 2006 International Writing Centers Association