IiNkqubo zeNkomfa yangaphambili

Ukuba ufuna ikopi yenkqubo evela kwiNkomfa yoNyaka ye-IWCA yangaphambili, bona IiNkqubo zeNkomfa yoNyaka edlulileyo.

Ingqungquthela yoNyaka yama-2023

Logistics

Umfanekiso wesitokhwe ovulekileyo wezinto ezininzi ezibandakanya "iiplanethi" ezininzi ezifana nomhlaba ngobukhulu obahlukeneyo.
bakubiza

Indlela: Ubuso ngobuso

Indawo: IBaltimore, Maryland

Ixesha: Oktobha 11-14, 2023

IiSihlalo zeNkqubo: UGqr. UHolly Ryan kunye noMairin Barney

Izindululo ezifunekayo: NgoMeyi 1 ngo-11:59 PM ET nge iwcamembers.org

Umxholo: Ukwamkela iiVesi ezininzi

Kolona ufakelo lwamva nje lweMarvel's Indoda yesigcawu franchise, uPeter Parker ufumanisa ukuba ukulwa neentshaba zakhe ezimbi, kufuneka (i-SPOILER ALERT!) asebenze nabanye ababini uPeter Parkers, ngamnye kubo okhoyo kwindalo enye. Ekuphela kwendlela yakhe eya phambili kukusebenzisana nezinye iinguqulelo zakhe ukuze asebenzele ukulunga okufanayo (Indoda yesigcawu: Akukho Ndlela yokuGoduka 2021). Lo mboniso bhanyabhanya ufumene udumo olubalulekileyo kunye neofisi yebhokisi ngendlela yayo entsha yokujongana neetrope ezinokudinwa zohlobo olubalaseleyo (Debruge). Injongo yethu ngenkomfa ye-IWCA yalo nyaka kukufumana iindlela ezintsha zokujongana nemiqobo (kwaye inokudinwa) iindibano zodidi lwenkomfa yonyaka kunye nokusebenza kunye ukwamkela abantu abaninzi bethu ukuze sicinge ngokutsha umsebenzi esiwenzayo. Emngciphekweni wokwahlukanisa abalandeli abangengabo ababalaseleyo kwiziko lokubhala, sicela abathathi-nxaxheba kwiNkomfa ye-IWCA yowama-2023 ukuba bacinge njengabantu besigcawu: abantu ababukeleyo bezama ukwenza okulungileyo nangona kukho isiphithiphithi socalucalulo ngokobuhlanga, ukungaqiniseki kwezopolitiko, i-neoliberalism, ukusilela. iinkqubo zemfundo, ukuhla kwamanani obhaliso, ubutshaba kwimfundo ephakamileyo, inkxaso-mali enyiniweyo kunye nokuncipha kohlahlo lwabiwo-mali, nolu luhlu luyaqhubeka. Nangona singakwazi ukukhuthaza utshintsho olunentsingiselo kuluntu lwethu lwengingqi, kufuneka kwakhona sijongane neentshaba ezinkulu zexesha lethu ngokwamkela umda opheleleyo wokuziphindaphinda kwethu. 

Tumxholo wenkomfa yonyaka wakhe uthi “Ukwamkel’ iiVesi ezininzi,” ngaxeshanye edibanisa imifanekiso yamagorha abalaseleyo esilwa noBubi obukhulu ngelixa, ngendlela edityanisiweyo, eqaqambisa zombini ubume obunobuninzi baMaziko ethu kunye “nevesi”—ulwimi olusisiseko somsebenzi wethu. Inxalenye yokuqala ethi "multi" inokubhekisa kuzo zonke iindlela amaziko okubhala asebenza ngayo nabantu abaninzi, uluntu kunye noqeqesho. Amaziko ethu kufuneka abe nakwazi ukufunda nokubhala, asebenzise iindlela ezininzi, abe namacandelo amaninzi ukuze axhase iinkqubo ezibandakanyayo. Kangangexesha elide, amaziko ethu okubhala abonakala eyinto enye, ulwimi olulodwa, inkcubeko enye; sifuna eli khwelo lisuse ububunye bethu kwaye kudaleke indawo yobuninzi bamazwi. Njengoko uHeather Fitzgerald kunye noHolly Salmon bebhala ileta yabo eyamkelekileyo kwabo bebezimase iNkomfa yeZiko lokuBhala laseKhanada ngo-2019, “Ubuninzi beZiko lethu lokuBhala busebenza-kwiindawo zethu, izikhundla zethu, uluntu esilusebenzelayo, itekhnoloji esisebenza ngayo kunye no. , kwaye, okona kubaluleke kakhulu, kumathuba ethu—mhlawumbi yeyona nto iqhubekayo kwimixholo yethu eyahlukeneyo” (1). Siyathemba ukuba izindululo zenkomfa ziya kujongana nezicwangciso ezisetyenziswa ngabahlohli kunye nabalawuli ukwamkela umngeni wokubandakanya ubuninzi bethu. Siyathemba ukuba abaphandi baya kuthatha inkuthazo kubabhali abafana noRachel Azima (2022), uHolly Ryan noStephanie Vie (2022), uBrian Fallon noLindsey Sabatino (2022, 2019), uZandra L. Jordan (2020), Muhammad Khurram Saleem (2018) , Joyce Locke Carter (2016), Alison Hitt (2012), kunye Kathleen Vacek (2012).  

Igama elithi “ivesi” lisingisele kwisihobe kunye neendlela ababhali abalungiselela ngayo ulwimi ukuthetha imiyalezo yabo kubaphulaphuli abaninzi. Ukuba sicinga ngomsebenzi weziko lokubhala nge-lens yolungiselelo-yeendawo, abantu, izixhobo kunye nezenzo-ke kufuneka sifumane iindlela zokujongana namalungiselelo amatsha ngesisa nangomdla wokwazi. Ukuba sihlambalaza igama (ngomoya wezibongo), sifika kwizinto ezininzi, umnxeba wokuguquguquka kunye nokuguquguquka kumaziko ethu. Siyathemba ukuba izindululo ziya kujongana nezenzo, amalungelo, kunye namandla dynamics endlela iingcali zokubhala zihamba ngayo “kwiiyunivesiti ezahlukeneyo." Amaziko okubhala anegalelo njani kwiindidi ezahlukeneyo zokubhala kwiindawo zethu? Sizichaphazela njani iindawo zethu zamaziko ukuze ziquke ngakumbi iindlela ezininzi zokubhala nokwazi? Amaziko akabhetyebhetye njengoko sinokufuna ukuba abenjalo, kodwa anjalo Kaninzi bhetyebhetye kunokuba uninzi lwethu lucinga. Ukuphefumlelwa kwezi ntetho kunokuvela kuKelin Hull noCorey Petit (2021), uDanielle Pierce kunye no-'Aolani Robinson (2021), uSarah Blazer noBrian Fallon (2020), uSara Alvarez (2019), u-Eric Camarillo (2019), uLaura Greenfield ( Ngo-2019), eVirginia Zavala (2019), UNeisha-Anne Green (2018), uAnibal Quijano (2014), kunye noKatherine Walsh (2005).

Kangangeminyaka emininzi, iingcali zeziko lokubhala bezithetha ngendlela kwaye kutheni kufuneka samkele ipraksis yolwazi lokufunda nokubhala. Kwinkomfa ye-MAWCA ka-2022, izithethi eziphambili uBrian Fallon noLindsay Sabatino bakhumbuze abathathi-nxaxheba ukuba “Ngaphezu kweminyaka engama-20 eyadlulayo, ngo-2000, uJohn Trimbur waxela kwangaphambili ukuba amaziko okubhala aya kuhamba abe ngamaziko okufunda nokubhala ashukuxa 'umsebenzi wezinto ezininzi apho ngomlomo, ngokubhaliweyo, nangokubonwayo. unxibelelwano intertwine'(29), [kodwa] njengendawo, asikalwamkeli ngokupheleleyo ikhwelo leTrimbur nezinye iziko lokubhala labaphengululi lokuqhubela phambili” (7-8). Kule nkomfa, sinethemba lokwakhela phezu kwezinto ezinokwenzeka ekwabelwana ngazo kwezinye iinkomfa ngokubonisa ubuninzi bethu bokwenza, uphando, kunye nokufundisa. Bubuphi ubudlelwane owakhe wakha, loluphi uqeqesho olunikayo, loluphi uthethathethwano noluntu olwenzileyo? Zeziphi itekhnoloji ozisebenzisayo, kwaye zeziphi iindlela ozixhasayo, njl. 

Kuloo moya, thatha umzekelo, umsebenzi kaHannah Telling ongekathweswa sidanga kwimizobo yezandla, okwabelwana ngayo kwi-IWCA yakhe.  Inqaku eliphambili lika-2019. Eli yayilixesha elibalulekileyo le-multimodality. Okokuqala, iimowudi ze gestural kunye nokubonwayo ziye zanikwa ukukhanya, kwaye umsebenzi ka-Telling wasinceda ukuba siqonde konke esinokukufunda ekuhloleni izenzo zethu sisebenzisa ezi ndlela ngokwembali zingaxatyiswanga kunye neendlela. Okubalulekileyo, ukuxelela iimpembelelo ezicetyisiweyo kwezo mpawu ziphambili zomsebenzi weziko lokubhala njengentsebenziswano, ukuthatha inxaxheba, kunye nokubuyisana. Wasitshela, "Ngokuqaphela indlela umzimba wam uthetha ngayo iingcamango zokuthatha inxaxheba, ndifunde indlela yokunika ababhali indawo abayidingayo ukwabelana ngamava abo, izakhono kunye nolwazi" (42). Ukuxelela indlela yokuzoba esetyenzisiweyo ukujonga indlela imizimba edibana ngayo kwindawo yokubhalela kunye nendlela umboniso ozichaphazela ngayo iiseshini zethu. Ezi ntlobo zeentetho, iiworkshops, iingxoxo ezijikelezayo, kunye nomsebenzi we-multi-modal esifuna ukuwugqamisa kwinkomfa. Zeziphi ezinye iindlela ezintsha ezisigcinelwe zona ziindidi ngeendidi? Singazivulela njani iindlela ezintsha zokucinga, ukwenza, kunye nokunxibelelana kwiziko lokubhala langoku? UFallon noSabatino (2022) bathi amaziko okubhala "anoxanduva lokutshatisa indlela enokuthi ixhathise kwaye icele umngeni oko abafundi, abahlohli kunye noluntu bezisa kwiZiko" (3). Kodwa ntoni do uluntu lwethu luzisa kwiziko? Kwaye singenza njani ngokuthembekileyo nangempumelelo amandla oluntu lwethu kwaye sidale imiceli mngeni enentsingiselo ukukhuthaza ukukhula okuqhubekayo, kubafundi, abahlohli kunye nabalawuli? 

Ngokubhekiselele kumxholo walo nyaka, sifuna ukukhangela uluhlu lwemisebenzi yezemfundo. Nceda ucinge ngokuyilayo malunga neentlobo zeenkcazo-ntetho oziphakamisayo, kwaye uvuleleke ekucebiseni intsebenzo ngendlela kaSimpson noVirrueta (2020) “Iziko lokuBhala, uMculo,” isincoko sevidiyo, ipodcast, okanye enye indlela engeyo-alfabhethi. Ngelixa iinkomfa zihlala zineeseshoni zepowusta kunye nezilayidi ze-powerpoint, zeziphi ezinye iindidi kunye neendlela ezinokubonisa ngcono umsebenzi weziko lokubhala langoku? Ukongeza kwiiseshoni zemveli kunye neeprojekthi, sikhuthaza uluntu ukuba lungenise iifoto zangaphambili, umsebenzi wobugcisa, iincoko zevidiyo, kunye nezinye iiprojekthi zokubonisa kwiGalari yethu ye-Multimodal. Kwakhona, siceba ukuba negumbi elinikezelweyo kwinkomfa eya kusebenza njengeziko lokudala / i-makerspace enezixhobo ezahlukeneyo zobugcisa kunye nezixhobo ezisebenzisanayo. Ke ngoko, abathathi-nxaxheba abacebisa iiseshini zendawo yomenzi baya kuba nendawo eguquguqukayo yokubandakanya abathathi-nxaxheba.  

Imibuzo: Enza ntoni amaziko akho okubhala ukubandakanya ezi mpawu okanye iikhonsepthi zilandelayo?

  • Ukwazi ukufunda nokubhala:
    • Lenze ntoni iziko lakho lokubhala ukubeka phambili ukubandakanywa kwentetho yeelwimi, iilwimi, kunye/okanye ezininzi? Zeziphi iindima ezidlalwa kuqeqesho lwabasebenzi kunye nokufikelela kwifakhalthi kwezi nzame? 
    • Ngaba iziko lokubhala lingasebenza njani njengeziko lophando lweelwimi ezininzi kunye nolwamanye amazwe, unxibelelwano, kunye nepraksis? Sibaxhasa njani abafundi, abafundisi, kunye namalungu oluntu athatha inxaxheba kwiintetho zeelwimi ezininzi? Ingaba iinqobo ezisemgangathweni ze-HBCU, i-HSI, iiKholeji zeTribal okanye amanye amaziko anikezela iinkonzo ezincinci adibana njani nale mizamo?
    • Ubakhuthaza kwaye ubaxhase njani abantu abangahoywanga kunye/okanye abafundisi bemveli kwindawo yakho yokubhalela nakwiziko lakho ngokubanzi?
    • Ingaba ukongamela kukarhulumente kunye nezopolitiko zasekhaya zibe nefuthe njani kwinjongo yeziko lakho lokubhala kunye neenzame kulwazi lokufunda nokubhala? 
  • Iindlela ezininzi:
    • Ngubani iziko lakho lokubhala “iqhawe elibalaseleyo”? Yenza umfanekiso we-analog okanye wedijithali womfundi weziko lokubhala ophinde wacingelwa njengeqhawe elibalaseleyo. Lithini igama labo elibalaseleyo kunye nesazisi? Iimbono zabo zethiyori okanye zezifundo ziguqulelwa njani “kumagunya awongamileyo”? (I-Cosplay iyakhuthazwa kodwa ayifuni!)
    • Zeziphi izibonelelo okanye inkxaso elithe iziko lakho lokubhala liyifumene ukwenza ukutsiba kwi-hyperspace ye-multimodality? Iziko lakho lokubhala lithethelele njani izibonelelo ezongezelelweyo zokuxhasa abafundi abasebenzisa itekhnoloji yangoku kubandakanya kodwa kungaphelelanga kwinyani eyongeziweyo, inyani yokwenyani, imidlalo, ipodcasting, ukwenziwa kwevidiyo, njl. 
    • Yiyiphi indima edlalwa yinkxaso yokubhala nokubhala kwiindawo zomenzi ezigxile kwi-STEM (Summers 2021)? Usebenze njani ukuxhasa abafundi abenza umsebenzi we-multimodal kwizifundo ze-STEM?
    • Ngaba iziko lakho lokubhala lisebenzisana njani namasebe oNxibelelwano lweMisa kunye neMultimedia kwiziko lakho? Loluphi uqeqesho olunike abalawuli kunye/okanye abahlohli ukuxhasa abayili abafundi kwiinkalo zonxibelelwano?
    • Amaziko okubhala amabanga aphakamileyo alungiselela njani abafundi ukuba bazibandakanye ngokunemveliso kubuchwephesha bale mihla? 
    • Ngaba iitekhnoloji ezincedisayo okanye obunye ubuchwephesha bokufikeleleka buzichaphazela njani iiseshoni zamaziko okubhala? Iziko lakho lizidale njani iinkqubo ezibandakanyayo malunga nokukhubazeka/ukubanako?
  • Iinkqubo ezininzi:
    • Zeziphi iindlela abathi abalawuli kunye nabahlohli basebenzisane nefakhalthi kunye nabafundi kuzo zonke iinkalo zoqeqesho kwiziko lakho lokubhala? Uzinyamekela njani ukuba ubandakanye amandla emibono yeenkalo ezininzi? 
    • Amaziko okubhala ezikolo zamabanga aphakamileyo ajongana njani nezinto ezininzi? 
    • Zeziphi intsebenziswano phakathi kwezifundo eziye zanempumelelo kakhulu kwiziko lakho? Yintoni ebangela ukuba la manyathelo aphumelele?
    • Zeziphi izibonelelo (ezininzi) ozifumeneyo kwaye oko kuwutshintshe njani umsebenzi wakho? Ulukhuthaze njani unxibelelwano olufunekayo kwezi ntlobo zentsebenziswano?
  • Ukuhluka:
    • Amaziko okubhala afikelela njani kwiindawo ezahlukeneyo zovoto? Yeyiphi imizekelo ekhoyo yokuxhasa ezi ntsebenziswano? Yeyiphi imingeni ojongene nayo ekwenzeni okanye ekulondolozeni olu buhlakani? 
    • Ngaba ukuguquguquka kunye/okanye ukuziqhelanisa neemeko kube nefuthe lini ekuBhaleni kwiKharityhulam xa iyonke/ukuBhala kwiiNgcebiso (WAC/WID) kusebenza njani kwindawo ohlala kuyo? 
    • Ulitshintshe njani okanye ulitshintshe njani ipraksis yeziko lokubhala ukuze usebenze kumaziko okubhala asekuhlaleni? Kwakufuneka kutshintshe ntoni? 
    • Ulukhulise njani ubudlelwane kumacandelo onke kunye/okanye amaqela obudlelwane ukwenza inkcubeko yokubhala kwikhampasi yakho/esikolweni sakho/kwindawo ohlala kuyo? 
    • Zithini izibonelelo zesikhundla esichongiweyo sefakhalthi xa sithelekisa nesikhundla esichongiweyo sabasebenzi kwiziko lokubhala? Uthetha-thethana njani naloo mimandla yeentetho ezahlukeneyo? Unxibelelana njani kwezo zintlukwano zibonakala ngathi?
  • I-Multiversalism:
    • Uzame njani ukucwangcisa indawo kwiziko lakho lokubhala elimele iimbono kunye nokuxhasa iinkcukacha zoluntu olusebenzelayo? Ingaba unikezelo lwendawo yakho efanelekileyo yeziko lokubhala lujongeka njani? 
    • Ukudibana kweziko lokubhala nethala leencwadi, ukufikeleleka kunye nenkxaso yokukhubazeka, ingcebiso kwizifundo, kunye nezinye iiyunithi zenkxaso yabafundi zidale amathuba amatsha omsebenzi weziko lokubhala? 
    • Iziko lakho lokubhala lixhasa njani ifakhalthi ngokusebenzisana namasebe athile okanye amaziko okufundisa nokufunda? Zeziphi iintlobo zeenkqubo okanye imisitho ebonakala inxibelelana nefakhalthi kwikhampasi yakho?
    • Lo mxholo wenkomfa uthetha njani nezinye iinkomfa / imisitho yoluntu kwingingqi yakho? Uhlaziye njani / waphinda wacinga / waphinda wacinga kwakhona umsebenzi wakho wangaphambili kwiimeko ezahlukeneyo eziguqukayo (uMba woBomi oMnyama, i-Covid-19, ukunyuka kwamaxabiso / ukuhla koqoqosho, imfazwe e-Ukraine, iBrexit, njl.njl.) kule minyaka mithathu- mihlanu idlulileyo?
    • Zeziphi izicwangciso ozisebenzisayo ukuphazamisa iindlela ezizodwa zokwazi ngokuqesha abantu ababhalayo kwizifundo zeWAC/WID? Zeziphi intsebenziswano eziye zavela xa ubudibanisa ifakhalthi kunye nabafundi abavela kumacandelo ahlukeneyo ukuze basebenze ngokubhala?
    • Ingaba imida yelizwe neyamazwe ngamazwe iwuchaphazela njani umsebenzi weziko lokubhala? Nguwuphi umsebenzi owenziwayo ngaphesheya kwaye ukuwela imida? Zeziphi iimpembelelo zasemva kobukoloniyali kunye ne-decolonial kobu budlelwane? 
    • Ubakhuthaze njani abahlohli, abalawuli, kunye/okanye amaqabane asebenzisanayo ukuba babandakanye ukuphindaphinda kwabo? Zeziphi iindima ezizodwa ezifumanekayo kumsebenzi weziko lokubhala kubantu abanemibono edibeneyo, izazisi, kunye nemimandla yobuchwephesha?
    • Ngaba iziko lakho lokubhala liyikhokele njani indlela kumanyathelo e-DEIB esikolweni sakho okanye libe nefuthe njani kwezi njongo? Ngawaphi amanyathelo e-DEIB oye wawadala wena kunye/okanye nabasebenzi bakho? Ufunde ntoni ekudaleni iyantlukwano okanye ingxelo yobulungisa kwezentlalo kwiziko lakho? 

Iintlobo zeseshoni

  • Intsebenzo: intsebenzo yokuyila esebenzisa iindlela ezibonwayo, ezithethwayo, kunye/okanye zezandla eziphawulayo okanye ezibonelela ngomzekelo wendlela umsebenzi weziko lokubhala ubonisa kunye/okanye uzibandakanya kuphindaphindo. 
  • Inkcazo yomntu ngamnye: intetho yomfundi ngamnye ukuba abacwangcisi beenkomfa baya kudibanisa kunye nezinye iintetho ze-2 kwiseshoni egxininise kumxholo ofanayo.
  • Iphaneli: 2-3 iiseshoni ezinxibelelene ngokwethematika zindululwe zonke kunye njengephaneli
  • I-Roundtable: incoko malunga nesihloko esihambelana nomxholo wenkomfa kunye nemibuzo egxininisekileyo ebonisa abathathi-nxaxheba ngeendlela ezahlukeneyo okanye iimbono. 
  • Ukungeniswa kweMultimodal Gallery: iipowusta, iicomics, iifoto, izincoko zevidiyo, iipodcasts, njl., eziya kuboniswa kwinkomfa kwaye kwabelwane ngazo kwi-app yenkomfa. 
  • Iqela elinomdla okhethekileyo (SIG): incoko egxininisekileyo malunga nesihloko esithile okanye iqela elihambelanayo elinxulumene nomsebenzi weziko lokubhala.
  • Umsebenzi-kwinkqubela-phambili: isiqwenga esisisiqalo ongathanda ukufumana ingxelo ngaso kwabanye abaphengululi beziko lokubhala.
  • Iworkshop yesiqingatha sosuku (iiyure ezi-3-5): yenziwe ngolwesiThathu phambi kwenkomfa enokubandakanya i-makerspace/creative/active sessions. Abathathi-nxaxheba baya kuhlawula ngaphezulu ukuze babe yinxalenye yezi seshoni. 

Iindidi: Uza kucelwa ukuba umakishe ubuncinane enye yezi ndidi zilandelayo ukuba isindululo sakho samkelwe.

  • Administration
  • U vavanyo 
  • Intsebenziswano (ii)
  • I-DEI/uBulungisa beNtlalo
  • I-ESOL/Ukufundisa ngeelwimi ezininzi/ukufundisa ngeelwimi eziguqulelweyo
  • tindlela
  • Iingcamango
  • Imfundo yoMhlohli/uQeqesho
  • Ukufundisa Abafundi abaDanga izidanga
  • Ukufundisa Abafundi abangekathweswa isidanga
  • WAC/WID
  • Ukubhala Abazalwana / Ukufundisa okuzinzisiweyo

Imisebenzi ikhankanyiwe

UAlvarez, uSara P., et al. "Indlela yokuGuqulela iiLwimi, iZazi zobuhlanga, kunye nelizwi ekuBhaleni." Ukuwela uLwahlulo: Ukuphonononga iziFundo neeNkqubo zoBhalo lokuBhala ngeelwimi, ihlelwe nguBruce Horner kunye noLaura Tetreault, i-Utah State UP, i-2017, iphepha 31-50.

Azima, Rachel. “Ngekabani iSithuba, Ngokwenene? Iingqwalasela zoYilo lweZithuba zeZiko lokuBhala.” I-Praxis: Ijenali yeZiko lokuBhala, vol. 19, hayi. 2, 2022.

UBlazer, uSarah kunye noBrian Fallon. “Ukutshintsha kweeMeko Zababhali Beelwimi Ezininzi.” IForam yoKwakha, vol. 44, ihlobo lowama-2020.

Camarillo, u-Eric C. “Ukuphelisa ubundilele: Ukuhlakulela iZiko lokuBhala elichasene nobuhlanga.” Praxis: Ijenali yeZiko lokuBhala, iv. 16, hayi. I-2, 2019.

UCarter, uJoyce Locke. “Ukwenza, Ukuphazamisa, Ukusungula izinto ezintsha: Intetho kaSihlalo weCCCC yowama-2016.” Ukwakhiwa kweKholeji kunye noNxibelelwano, umqulu. 68, hayi. 2, 2016: iphe. 378-408.

Debruge, uPetros. "'Indoda yesigcawu: Akukho Ndlela Ya Ekhaya' Uphononongo: UTom Holland Ucoca iiCobwebs ze Ukutyhoboza iFranchise ngedabi elikhulu elinezinto ezininzi. ” Ezahlukeneyo. 13 Dec. 2021. https://variety.com/2021/film/reviews/spider-man-no-way-home-review-tom-holland-1235132550/

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